Its uncertainty is very low."[44]. {\displaystyle D} Observation Of A Child Observation 938 Words | 4 Pages. 96). However, these techniques have the negative effect of increasing how intrusive you are as an observer and will often not be practical or even allowed under certain circumstances [e.g., interaction between a doctor and a patient] and in certain organizational settings [e.g., a courtroom]. Over the past few weeks I have observed a child in the twelve to eighteen month old category. [47] The phasing-out of less active HCFC-compounds will be completed in 2030. This is a very demanding method because you are trying to record everything within the setting and, thus, measuring reliability may be sacrificed. Alderks, Peter. Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be about −18 Â°C (0 Â°F),[2] rather than the present average of 15 Â°C (59 Â°F). Emissions from the sanitation and wastewater sector have been focused mainly on treatment systems, particularly treatment plants, and this accounts for the bulk of the carbon footprint for the sector. guideline on guidelines) of the GCP Inspectors Working Group. In any sporting situation, especially team games, it is difficult, if not impossible, for coaches to notice and If, however, a school classroom is unavailTABLE, you may choose any educational setting for children. Below are the CO2 emission values that fell at the 50th percentile of all studies surveyed.[171]. [133], While cities are sometimes considered to be disproportionate contributors to emissions, per-capita emissions tend to be lower for cities than the averages in their countries. Taking a photograph can save you time in documenting the details of a space that would otherwise require extensive note taking. However, consult with your professor concerning what your list of sources should be included and be sure to write them in the preferred citation style of your discipline or is preferred by your professor [i.e., APA, Chicago, MLA, etc.]. Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. The global warming potential (GWP) depends on both the efficiency of the molecule as a greenhouse gas and its atmospheric lifetime. During the pre-industrial Holocene, concentrations of existing gases were roughly constant, because the large natural sources and sinks roughly balanced. Earlier still, a 200-million year period of intermittent, widespread glaciation extending close to the equator (Snowball Earth) appears to have been ended suddenly, about 550 Ma, by a colossal volcanic outgassing that raised the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere abruptly to 12%, about 350 times modern levels, causing extreme greenhouse conditions and carbonate deposition as limestone at the rate of about 1 mm per day. In 2019 a new report "Plastic and Climate" was published. [41], A number of natural and man-made mechanisms can affect the global energy balance and force changes in Earth's climate. Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing, 2005; Report Writing. Illustrations/Drawings If this energy balance is shifted, Earth's surface becomes warmer or cooler, leading to a variety of changes in global climate. What were the relative merits of the behaviors you observed? Introduction Oxidation of CO to CO2 directly produces an unambiguous increase in radiative forcing although the reason is subtle. YET ANOTHER NOTE:  An issue rarely discussed in the literature about conducting field research is whether you should move around the study site while observing or remaining situated in one place. Naturalistic Observation This paper is going to describe the behavioral and cognitive traits that can be inferred from that behavior of a two year old child that I observed in the park as she was playing with her mother. m The major constituents of Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen (N2)(78%), oxygen (O2)(21%), and argon (Ar)(0.9%), are not greenhouse gases because molecules containing two atoms of the same element such as N2 and O2 have no net change in the distribution of their electrical charges when they vibrate, and monatomic gases such as Ar do not have vibrational modes. Writing Empirical Research Reports: A Basic Guide for Students of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. On the other hand, this method may be biased towards more conspicuous behaviors and you may miss a lot of what is going on between observations, especially rare or unusual behaviors. Writing Field Reports. The measurement protocol itself: This may be via direct measurement or estimation. [e.g., clothing, physical appearance such as tall or short,]. This method is also useful for obtaining preliminary observations that can be used to develop your final field study. However, these categories of assessment techniques are not necessarily distinct. According to the report plastic will contribute greenhouse gases in the equivalent of 850 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere in 2019. 2nd ed. Including biotic emissions brings about the same controversy mentioned earlier regarding carbon sinks and land-use change (Banuri et al., 1996, pp. For China's annual emissions in 2008, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency estimated an uncertainty range of about 10%.[145]. (in kg) of X in the box to its removal rate, which is the sum of the flow of X out of the box University of Washington; Dubbels, Brock R. Exploring the Cognitive, Social, Cultural, and Psychological Aspects of Gaming and Simulations. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2018; Emerson, Robert M. Contemporary Field Research: Perspectives and Formulations. Video or audio recording your observations has the positive effect of giving you an unfiltered record of the observation event. [125], Approximately 3.5% of the overall human impact on climate are from the aviation sector. Field reports are most often assigned in disciplines of the applied social sciences [e.g., social work, anthropology, gerontology, criminal justice, education, law, the health care professions] where it is important to build a bridge of relevancy between the theoretical concepts learned in the classroom and the practice of actually doing the work you are being taught to do. This bar graph shows global greenhouse gas emissions by sector from 1990 to 2005, measured in 100-year estimated, Carbon intensity of GDP (using PPP) for different regions, 1982–2011, Map of cumulative per capita anthropogenic atmospheric, Contribution of clouds to Earth's greenhouse effect, Proportion of direct effects at a given moment, Radiative forcing and annual greenhouse gas index, Regional and national attribution of emissions, Life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of energy sources. administrator 0 Comments. Individual atoms or molecules may be lost or deposited to sinks such as the soil, the oceans and other waters, or vegetation and other biological systems, reducing the excess to background concentrations. The method is useful in recording rare behaviors missed by other sampling methods and is often used in conjunction with focal or scan methods [see below]. In the modern era, emissions to the atmosphere from volcanoes are approximately 0.645 billion tonnes of CO2 per year, whereas humans contribute 29 billion tonnes of CO2 each year.[72][71][73][74]. Some gases have indirect radiative effects (whether or not they are greenhouse gases themselves). The child that I observed is a girl, has blonde hair and is physically well-developed for her age. This is useful for obtaining group behavioral data and allows for data that are evenly representative across individuals and periods of time. Monthly observation-service use was rising significantly and similarly for … The annual airborne fraction is the ratio of the atmospheric increase in a given year to that year's total emissions. The content represents the researcher's interpretation of meaning found in data that has been gathered during one or more observational events. [3][4][5] The atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain greenhouse gases. You need to demonstrate to the reader that you are conducting the field work through the eyes of an informed viewer and from the perspective of a casual observer. (2007)[163] assessed the scientific literature on greenhouse gas projections. Observation data collection method is classified as a participatory study, because the researcher has to immerse herself in the setting where her respondents are, while taking notes and/or recording. The remaining third of emissions arise from processes other than energy production. Observation Paper The first person I observed was at the park. Greenhouse gases can be removed from the atmosphere by various processes, as a consequence of: A number of technologies remove greenhouse gases emissions from the atmosphere. [158] Policies implemented by governments have included[159][160][161] national and regional targets to reduce emissions, promoting energy efficiency, and support for a renewable energy transition such as Solar energy as an effective use of renewable energy because solar uses energy from the sun and does not release pollutants into the air. Initial observation took place on Thursday 2nd November 2017 between 11am to 12pm. The greenhouse gas footprint refers to the emissions resulting from the creation of products or services. [22] Water vapor concentrations fluctuate regionally, but human activity does not directly affect water vapor concentrations except at local scales, such as near irrigated fields. Observation Analysis ...Observation Analysis Andrew Sanders University of Phoenix MTE/506 – Child and Adolescent Development Cynthia Lowe March 17, 2014 Word count: 2,925 Observation Analysis Teacher observation has been received as a reasonable source of information for recording and reporting student demonstrations of learning outcomes in childhood education. This is the most common and easiest method of recording your observations. ... paper and pen to take notes. To create a powerful observation essay, the author has to be a topic guru: describe what you survived or what inspires you. Click Go. There are several ways of measuring greenhouse gas emissions, for example, see World Bank (2010)[131]:362 for tables of national emissions data. ), The main sources of greenhouse gases due to human activity are: The seven sources of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion are (with percentage contributions for 2000–2004):[98], This list needs updating, as it uses an out of date source. Many observations are available online in a variety of Atmospheric Chemistry Observational Databases. a chemical change at the interface between the atmosphere and the other components of the planet. CO and NMVOCs produce CO2 when they are oxidized. [133] Calculations based on MER show large differences in intensities between developed and developing countries, whereas calculations based on PPP show smaller differences. Aside from water vapor, which has a residence time of about nine days,[32] major greenhouse gases are well mixed and take many years to leave the atmosphere. All sampling decisions are made for the explicit purpose of obtaining the richest possible source of information to answer the research questions. u In the late 19th century scientists experimentally discovered that N2 and O2 do not absorb infrared radiation (called, at that time, "dark radiation"), while water (both as true vapor and condensed in the form of microscopic droplets suspended in clouds) and CO2 and other poly-atomic gaseous molecules do absorb infrared radiation. The size of the indirect effect can depend strongly on where and when the gas is emitted. The introduction should describe the research problem, the specific objectives of your research, and the important theories or concepts underpinning your field study. How do you examine the situation? Participant observation is a method of collecting qualitative data in social research. “Participant Observation and Fieldnotes.” In Handbook of Ethnography. In order, the most abundant[clarification needed] greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are:[citation needed], Atmospheric concentrations are determined by the balance between sources (emissions of the gas from human activities and natural systems) and sinks (the removal of the gas from the atmosphere by conversion to a different chemical compound or absorption by bodies of water). Energy may be produced at the point of consumption, or by a generator for consumption by others. This sample Participant Observation Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Sampling in observational research is flexible and often continues until no new themes emerge from the data, a point referred to as data saturation. As a result of this balance, the atmospheric mole fraction of carbon dioxide remained between 260 and 280 parts per million for the 10,000 years between the end of the last glacial maximum and the start of the industrial era. You should also state any recommendations you may have based on the results of your study. e.g., Gupta et al. [41] As explained above, some greenhouse gases remain in the atmosphere for decades or even centuries, and therefore can affect Earth's energy balance over a long period.'s Classroom Observation Sample Essays services, on the other hand, is a perfect match for all my written needs. 92–93).[133]. [131]:370 Per capita emissions may be based on historical or annual emissions (Banuri et al., 1996, pp. [126], In 2017 the digital sector produced 3.3% of global GHG emissions, above civil aviation (2%). Examples of information that could be included in an appendix are figures/tables/charts/graphs of results, statistics, pictures, maps, drawings, or, if applicable, transcripts of interviews. ). Scan Sampling -- this method involves taking a census of the entire observed group at predetermined time periods and recording what each individual is doing at that moment. This results in the generation of methane gas, that is then released into the environment. [136], Land-use change, e.g., the clearing of forests for agricultural use, can affect the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by altering how much carbon flows out of the atmosphere into carbon sinks. 2nd ed. This is because some of the gases absorb and emit radiation at the same frequencies as others, so that the total greenhouse effect is not simply the sum of the influence of each gas. [108] If these emissions are attributed to the final consumer then 24% of total emissions arise from manufacturing and construction, 17% from transportation, 11% from domestic consumers, and 7% from commercial consumers. Atmospheric Science; Because atmospheric concentrations of most gases tend to vary systematically over the course of a year, figures given represent averages over a 12-month period for all gases except ozone (O3), for which a current global value has been estimated (IPCC, 2001, Table 4.1a). You may expand on the sample questions. Thus emissions arising from energy production may be categorised according to where they are emitted, or where the resulting energy is consumed. Why do you think what you observed happened? the stock of carbon in the atmosphere increases by more than 3 million tonnes per annum (0.04%) compared with the existing stock. Qualitative Research 16 (August 2016): 446-457; Pace, Tonio. [107] Around 6% of emissions are fugitive emissions, which are waste gases released by the extraction of fossil fuels. How you choose to format your field report is determined by the research problem, the theoretical framework that is driving your analysis, the observations that you make, and/or specific guidelines established by your professor. In 2020 this is expected to reach 4%, the equivalent emissions of India in 2015. These two principles result in different totals when measuring, for example, electricity importation from one country to another, or emissions at an international airport. Pandas is one of those packages, and makes importing and analyzing data much easier. Writing a good reading response paper is not a task that requires cumbersome efforts. [86] Water vapor responds to and amplifies effects of the other greenhouse gases. It also facilitates repeated analysis of your observations. Scribd Online Library; Presser, Jon and Dona Schwartz. [20] The same process that converts NMVOCs to carbon dioxide can also lead to the formation of tropospheric ozone. You should face the problem discussed in your paper at least once in your life. The number of international travelers is expected to increase from 594 million in 1996 to 1.6 billion by 2020, adding greatly to the problem unless steps are taken to reduce emissions. 123HELPME™ BEST ESSAY HELP SERVICE WITH EXPERIENCED PHD WRITERS 155 462 DELIVERED ORDERS 21 439 PROFESSIONAL WRITERS 419 WRITERS ONLINE 4.8/5 AVERAGE QUALITY SCORE Order Paper HOW TO WRITE A LITERATURE REVIEW A literature review can be defined as a summary and explanation of the whole and current state of knowledge on a … chemical loss of X Observation is the key to writing a good response paper. Example Of Classroom Observation Paper And Classroom Observation Report Essay. There are substantial uncertainties in the measurement of net carbon emissions. UniLearning. Why did the people you observed proceed with an action in the way that they did? This paper finds that thematic analysis is a comprehensive process where researchers are able to identify numerous ... For example, if the aim of the researcher is to measure what differences occur among ... By gathering data using different instruments, (e.g. It also helps to connect with the child in a meaningful way and build stronger relationships in the classroom. The advantage of this method is that you are often able to observe relatively rare or unusual behaviors that might be missed by more deliberately designed sampling methods. This analysis should be completed as a formal paper in APA format. audio-visual analysis of … Direct data does not exist for periods earlier than those represented in the ice core record, a record that indicates CO2 mole fractions stayed within a range of 180 ppm to 280 ppm throughout the last 800,000 years, until the increase of the last 250 years. The probability of a transition between labels may depend not only on the current observation, but also on past and future observations, if available. This is where you would place information that is not essential to explaining your findings, but that supports your analysis [especially repetitive or lengthy information], that validates your conclusions, or that contextualizes a related point that helps the reader understand the overall report. For many richer nations, such as the United States, the accounts balance is negative because more goods are imported than they are exported. From the other side, if it is placed in a landfill, it becomes a carbon sink[121] although biodegradable plastics have caused methane emissions. Preschoolers Observation The observation took place at a local playground in a nearby park, because I felt that this would be the most comfortable, and therefore the most conducive environment for gathering the information I needed unobtrusively. [35][25] Although more than half of the CO2 emitted is removed from the atmosphere within a century, some fraction (about 20%) of emitted CO2 remains in the atmosphere for many thousands of years. Did the stated or implicit objectives of what you were observing match what was achieved? Formal Analysis Paper Example 1 Formal Analysis Paper Example 2 Formal Analysis Paper Example 3 {\displaystyle \tau } Rogner et al. Earth's surface temperature depends on this balance between incoming and outgoing energy. (A) Water vapor strongly varies locally[29] [12][13] Traditional rice cultivation is the second biggest agricultural methane source after livestock, with a near-term warming impact equivalent to the carbon-dioxide emissions from all aviation. Manmade greenhouse gas emissions can be divided into those that arise from the combustion of fuels to produce energy, and those generated by other processes. Writing Field Reports. Example: According to Thoreau, people are too often "thrown off the track by every nutshell and mosquito's wing that falls on the rails." Annual per capita emissions in the industrialized countries are typically as much as ten times the average in developing countries. ( This is more than the automotive sector. Observation and Analysis Paper Essay. Professors will assign a field report with the intention of improving your understanding of key theoretical concepts by applying methods of careful and structured observation of, and reflection about, people, places, or phenomena existing in their natural settings. (2007) assessed the scientific literature on climate change mitigation policy: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, molecules containing two atoms of the same element, infrared radiation in the wavelength range emitted by Earth, first IPCC Scientific Assessment of Climate Change, Atmospheric Chemistry Observational Databases, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol § Government action and emissions, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions, List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita, List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions, List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions per capita, climate change scenario § Quantitative emissions projections, Global climate model § Projections of future climate change, Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of energy sources, bio-energy with carbon capture and storage, List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources, List of international environmental agreements, Top contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, "NASA GISS: Science Briefs: Greenhouse Gases: Refining the Role of Carbon Dioxide", "NASA Science Mission Directorate article on the water cycle", "CO2 in the atmosphere just exceeded 415 parts per million for the first time in human history", "Climate Change: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide | NOAA", "Frequently asked global change questions", Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, "AR4 SYR Synthesis Report Summary for Policymakers – 2 Causes of change", "Global Methane Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities", "Thai rice farmers step up to tackle carbon footprint", "Earth Will Cross the Climate Danger Threshold by 2036", "Contributions to accelerating atmospheric, "Laboratory Comparison of the Global-Warming Potential of Six Categories of Biomass Cooking Stoves", 10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<0197:EAGMEB>2.0.CO;2, "The attribution of the present-day total greenhouse effect", "An emissions-based view of climate forcing by methane and tropospheric ozone", "Methane's Impacts on Climate Change May Be Twice Previous Estimates", "Climate Change Indicators: Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases", "Strong atmospheric chemistry feedback to climate warming from Arctic methane emissions", "Frequently Asked Question 10.3: If emissions of greenhouse gases are reduced, how quickly do their concentrations in the atmosphere decrease? What evidence do you have for your reasoning? observation, questionnaires with . Throughout this paper I will refer to him as Z. I had five different observations, each for one hour at the West Chester Area Day Care. However, various proxies and modeling suggests larger variations in past epochs; 500 million years ago CO2 levels were likely 10 times higher than now. One way of attributing greenhouse gas emissions is to measure the embedded emissions (also referred to as "embodied emissions") of goods that are being consumed. L (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2001), 352-368; Emerson, Robert M. et al. For example, packaging beverages in PET plastic rather than glass or metal is estimated to save 52% in transportation energy, if the glass or metal package is single-use, of course. [102], Although CFCs are greenhouse gases, they are regulated by the Montreal Protocol, which was motivated by CFCs' contribution to ozone depletion rather than by their contribution to global warming. Tyler Smith I . Tourism accounts for about 50% of traffic movements. This measurement type is called historical or cumulative emissions. [1] Carbon dioxide (0.04%), nitrous oxide, methane and ozone are trace gases that account for almost 0.1% of Earth's atmosphere and have an appreciable greenhouse effect. As Dubbels notes [p. 19], these are: Always place the analysis and interpretations of your field observations within the larger context of the theoretical assumptions and issues you described in the introduction. [133] The actual calculation of net emissions is very complex, and is affected by how carbon sinks are allocated between regions and the dynamics of the climate system. Wallace, John M. and Peter V. Hobbs. In a Geographic Information System, the analysis can be done quantitatively.For example, a set of observations (as points or extracted … I had looked into many tutoring services, Classroom Observation Sample Essays but they weren't affordable and did not understand my custom-written needs. Sample Qualitative Research Example Photography As with any product of data gathering, you are the sole instrument of interpretation and meaning-making, not the object itself. 106–07). Indirectly, human activity that increases global temperatures will increase water vapor concentrations, a process known as water vapor feedback. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor (H 2 O), carbon dioxide (CO 2), methane (CH 4), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and ozone (O 3).Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth's … [174][175] In the early 20th century researchers realized that greenhouse gases in the atmosphere made Earth's overall temperature higher than it would be without them. For example, the direct radiative effect of a mass of methane is about 84 times stronger than the same mass of carbon dioxide over a 20-year time frame[25] but it is present in much smaller concentrations so that its total direct radiative effect has so far been smaller, in part due to its shorter atmospheric lifetime in the absence of additional carbon sequestration. Be sure to describe any unanticipated problems you encountered and note the limitations of your study. Instances of that individual 's behavior helps to connect with the other greenhouse gases is your framework. 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'' in the industrialized observation analysis paper example are typically as much as ten times average..., equipment, or graphs documenting the details of a field report glass or metal, Plastic may reduce consumption. Paper and Classroom observation sample Essays services, Classroom observation report Essay and heated debate amongst is! Data also shows that the global energy balance and force changes in Earth surface. In very small quantities November 2017 between 11am to 12pm an observation Essay, the calculation of the observation not. Skills from the atmosphere involves variable levels of involvement of the observation without intrusive! Within it reduction of carbon dioxide emission of comparable scale has occurred since:370 per capita emissions India... Are 10+ qualitative Research 16 ( August 2016 ): 446-457 ; Pace, Tonio, it’s to! See connections between what you observed addition, durations and latencies are only reliable subjects... 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