All philosophers will say the first, and yet, perhaps, theymay be only magnifying themselves. The paper presents a study on the presence of Homer in Plato’s Philebus. Nic.Ethics). These arestronger motives than the greatest happiness of the greatest number, whichis the thesis of a philosopher, not the watchword of an army. For Socrates is far from implying that the art ofrhetoric has a real sphere of practical usefulness: he only means that therefutation of the claims of Gorgias is not necessary for his presentpurpose. Philosophy had so deepened or intensified the nature of one or Being, bythe thoughts of successive generations, that the mind could no longerimagine 'Being' as in a state of change or division. Now the phenomena ofmoral action differ, and some are best explained upon one principle andsome upon another: the virtue of justice seems to be naturally connectedwith one theory of morals, the virtues of temperance and benevolence withanother. Such, forexample, is the excessive and more than human awe which Socrates expressesabout the names of the gods, which may be not unaptly compared with theimportance attached by mankind to theological terms in other ages; for thisalso may be comprehended under the satire of Socrates. When we are told that actions are right or wrong only in so far as theytend towards happiness, we naturally ask what is meant by 'happiness.' Plato lived 427 - 347 and was an aristocratic Athenian, served probably in the military, and traveled extensively. The existence of such an end is proved, as in Aristotle'stime, so in our own, by the universal fact that men desire it. They bear a veryfaded resemblance to the interested audiences of the Charmides, Lysis, orProtagoras. Acknowledgement: I have summarized Plato's dialogs (some much more than others) using The Collected Dialogues Bollingen Series Princeton University Press 1961-1989, edited by Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns. Yes, retorts Socrates, pleasure is like pleasure, as figure islike figure and colour like colour; yet we all know that there is greatvariety among figures and colours.  But Socrates and his interlocutors go on to dismiss both pleasure and knowledge as unsatisfactory, reasoning that the truly good is a third type, one of a measured and rational mixture of the two. Plato was a student of Socrates (who did not write) and the teacher of Aristotle, who founded another university, known as the Lyceum. Under relatives I class all thingsdone with a view to generation; and essence is of the class of good. They could not believe that what theywere always striving to overcome, and the power or principle in them whichovercame, were of the same nature. And we cannot with advantage fill up thevoid of our knowledge by conjecture: we can only make allowance for ourignorance. The habit ofthe mind, the opinion of the world, familiarizes them to us; and they takemore and more the form of immediate intuition. The relation of the goods to the sciencesdoes not appear; though dialectic may be thought to correspond to thehighest good, the sciences and arts and true opinions are enumerated in thefourth class. And we further admitted that both of them belonged to theinfinite class. There is a theory which has been contrasted with Utility by Paley andothers--the theory of a moral sense: Are our ideas of right and wronginnate or derived from experience? The extreme and one-sided doctrines of the Cynics andCyrenaics are included in a larger whole; the relations of pleasure andknowledge to each other and to the good are authoritatively determined; theEleatic Being and the Heraclitean Flux no longer divide the empire ofthought; the Mind of Anaxagoras has become the Mind of God and of theWorld. And when you have asimilar knowledge of any other subject, you may be said to know thatsubject. Plato: Dialogues (Dialogs) Summary by Michael McGoodwin, prepared 1990, revised 2002. Atfirst we have but a confused conception of them, analogous to the eyesblinking at the light in the Republic. , It has been proposed that the work was composed between 360 and 347 BC, and that it is among the last of the late dialogues of Plato, many of which do not figure Socrates as the main speaking character. 'True.' Od. For in humanactions men do not always require broad principles; duties often come hometo us more when they are limited and defined, and sanctioned by custom andpublic opinion. I. There is also a difference, which may be noted,between the two dialogues. It is this interval upon which we have to fix our minds if wewould rightly understand the character of the transition from one to theother. Tothe higher thinker the Utilitarian or hedonist mode of speaking has been atvariance with religion and with any higher conception both of politics andof morals. To what then is to be attributed this opinion which has been oftenentertained about the uncertainty of morals? What is that which constituteshappiness, over and above the several ingredients of health, wealth,pleasure, virtue, knowledge, which are included under it? A well-educated child of ten years old already knows theessentials of morals: 'Thou shalt not steal,' 'thou shalt speak thetruth,' 'thou shalt love thy parents,' 'thou shalt fear God.'
2020 philebus plato summary