Mangrove Charcoal is very hard and dense; it burns hotter and longer if compared to any other natural charcoal. Several oven types were used in the study sites, but 99.6% of fish smokers used a traditional oven (banda). Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. Post Reply. Forests are clearly under great pressure. Direct observations were made of the conditions to which fish smokers were exposed (smoke, heat, flames). (c) Coconut shell. Table 3. Firewood origin according to respondents. Fish smoking is mainly carried out by women in coastal fishing communities and is a job generator, providing 240 000 indirect jobs for women. Our first field trip was conducted with personnel from the IRAD and the Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and Animal Industries’ (MINEPIA) team, who introduced us to the fishing communities and explained the purpose and importance of our work. In their study on fish smoking in the same region as ours, N. Z. Feka and Manzano (2008) found that 62% of wood used for fish smoking is mangrove wood. The Best Charcoal for Barbecue and Grilling. As most rural areas do not have electricity, local people use smoking as a way to preserve fish. (2013), Djessouho (2015), and Chabi et al. Indeed, there is a significant difference (F = 17.348, df = 243, p = .00012) between wood consumption in the nine communities. Four solar dryers have been built, saving up to 40 tonnes of CO2 per year. Oven preference by zone according to respondents. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. N. Z. Feka, Chuyong, and Ajonina (2009) found that the smoking time of a cinderblock oven is 30% less than a traditional oven. We asked some respondents to monitor their wood consumption. Thus, type 1 error levels (i.e., reject the null hypothesis when true) are not guaranteed. The majority of fish smokers were from Cameroon (47.3%), followed by Ghana (23.45%), Nigeria (22.63%), and Benin (6.6%). This happens on two levels: one is that the long-term supply of firewood is compromised and the other is that mangroves are an important habitat for the breeding of halieutic resources, and its loss is resulting in decreasing fish stocks (Food and Agriculture Organization, 2007). Our study found that with traditional ovens, smoking approximately 20 kg of fish cost 7€, about 3.7 times higher than the 2€ cited by Djessouho (2015) in his socioeconomic analysis of fish smoking in Benin. Before beginning fieldwork, interviews were held with staff at the Institute of Agricultural Research for Development (IRAD), who had a good knowledge of the study site, and were able to advise us on locations. The hydrography is characterized by the Andokat and Rio Del Rey rivers, which converge in an estuary (Olivry, cited in Tadjoung & Effala, 2008). For the same smoking time, the cinderblock oven which has a capacity of 160 kg of fish per smoking session can smoke approximately 2,750 kg of fish with 780 kg of wood. Effective mangrove conservation measures thus need urgently to be employed to avoid both socioeconomic and ecological disasters. How to reduce wood consumption is now a central challenge for many governments, and one solution could be the use of more economical ovens. If nothing is done to conserve or sustainably manage the remaining stands, then the Rhizophora species will disappear, as is already the case in Kribi and in many other regions (Ngo-Massou et al., 2014; Pouokam, 2011). In their study, Mulo and Ngueguim (2014) found that for every 100 kg of fish smoked, the fuel cost was 2.5€ for a cinderblock oven and approximately 5€ for a traditional banda oven. Finally, my biggest thanks go to the fish smokers for their collaboration in this study. On average, a traditional oven has a capacity of 528.5 kg of fish and consumes 1,204.5 kg of wood with a smoking time of 53 hr. Although wood smoking contributes to the physicochemical properties of fish, it does not always achieve fish smokers’ goals. Oven types in study site. The overexploitation of mangroves also threatens the sustainability of fish smoking activities. 73 likes. Soils are essentially gray or black vases, with silty textures, sandy, or clayey. When there was a smoking session, the weight of the fish and of the wood used for smoking was measured and recorded. It is now widely recognized, however, that conservation legislation is of fundamental importance to successful mangrove management systems (Van Lavieren et al., 2012 cited in Z. N. Feka, 2015). This difference is due to the scarcity of Kribi mangroves relative to other species (Angoni et al., 2015). Some respondents had not come across cinderblock ovens. In their study of five communities in the same area, Mulo and Ngueguim (2014), found that 83% of fish smokers used traditional ovens and 11% used metal ovens. 1 0 obj In Cameroon, mangrove forests — made up of salt-tolerant trees and shrubs found between small streams and the sea — are in danger of becoming extinct because of the tendency of women to harvest them for smoking fish. Suspended ovens have a large capacity (can take 1,500 kg) for fish and consume 500 kg to 3,360 kg of wood with a smoking time ranging from 48 to 96 hr (2–4 days). Read my article on soaking wood. These were suspended iron bandas (Figure 9(a)), suspended wooden bandas (Figure 9(b)), or circular ovens (Figure 9(c)). Lumber, both new and used, is best to avoid when choosing wood to smoke. Resource renewal is also threatened, as long-term conservation plans are not in operation in most areas, and little or nothing is being done to address the overconsumption of this resource. The result is that mangrove forests continue to be depleted at an uncontrolled rate. Studies in Benin, Togo, and Ivory coast (Abotchi, 2010; Chabi et al., 2014; Oulaï et al., 2007) have found, like us, that all fish smokers are women. Promotional Price Vietnam 100% Wood Charcoal from Mangrove for Somalia Smoking Hookah Bars . We also found that the smoking time is almost 90% less than that of a traditional oven. Fifty-two percent of respondents are large-scale smokers and are mainly located in Eyengue, Idenau, and Down Beach. However, indigenous fishing communities on the coast harvest mangrove wood for household domestic use, in particular for cooking and smoking fish. (d) Cinderblock oven. Thus, the loss of mangroves will affect the entire planet not only because it will lead to a loss of biodiversity but also because it will accelerate climate change (PFBC, 2006). Three statistical tests were performed using R software. (2014) suggest that this demand is because of taste of smoked fish. It has a harder, more dense wood which means it burns hotter and longer when compared to other charcoal types. As the population increases, coastal resources will continue to come under more and more pressure (Angoni et al., 2015). They were Eyengue, Idenau, Esobe, Njonji, Debundsha, Bakingili, Batoke, Down beach, and Tiko. Related Species: None available. Data were collected through the interviews which focused on respondents’ socioeconomic, demographic, and professional characteristics as well as their daily activities. They were also asked to quantify their oven capacity (the maximum number of kilograms of fish it could hold at one go) and the amount of wood needed to smoke this quantity. In each community, GPS coordinates were recorded using the GPS receiver (GPS GARMIN MAP 64). The conservation of mangrove ecosystems is thus becoming an increasingly urgent topic (Tiéga & Ouédraogo, 2012). This may be due to the Muslim culture in these countries, which may prevent women from going to school. Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora harrisonii are also present. Members Profile. Those from Benin did less fish smoking and therefore consumed less wood than others. Introducing cinderblock ovens could be key to reducing the consumption of wood; they require half the amount of wood used by a traditional oven. The ever-increasing distance needed to be traveled to collect wood underscores how mangrove forests have become severely depleted. A suspended wooden banda may last only 5 months, although, on average, traditional oven lasts about 6 years compared to 13 years for a cinderblock oven. However, Pouokam (2011), who worked on the firewood sector in the Kribi fisheries, found that smokers used Sambi (Uapaca guineensis). endstream Fish smoking is a very important activity in the south west region of Cameroon and the demand for smoked fish continues to grow. Two lots of wood (120 pieces/lot). However, indigenous fishing communities on the coast harvest mangrove wood for household domestic use, in particular for cooking and smoking fish. (a) Suspended iron banda. They are closely followed by smokers from Cameroon and Nigeria. Smoked fish products are a big deal in Côte d'Ivoire, accounting for 65% - or 1 million kilos – of the all fish traded. However, once you learn about the different types of wood for smoking meat, you will find those great few choices that will suit your personal tastes in no time. I would like to thank the Ministry of Forests and Wildlife and the Ministry of Fisheries and Animal Industry, through their departmental delegation of Fako, for facilitating field trips in the study areas. The study site is a coastal area, where there are many elongated banks of dry land. describe the socioeconomic lives of those involved in fish smoking; identify the sources of energy, wood species, wood cost, and alternative fuels used; determine the yields of different oven types and the amount of fuel they require. Fish smokers acquired firewood in several ways. Ninety-three percent of our respondents purchase the wood they use, which is mainly red mangrove (Rhizophora racemosa). Wood was sold in variety of ways. This allowed us to directly observe the fish species, any alternative fuels used, the type of oven used, and the wood species used for smoking. Mangrove Charcoal is a great source for BBQ or grilling. During this first trip, nine fishing communities were identified (Figure 1) and invited to take part in the study. The quantity of wood consumed is governed not only by the amount of fish requiring smoking but also by the type of oven used. Because of population pressure, this artisanal technique of preservation consumes greater quantities of mangrove wood each year and is having a progressively detrimental impact on mangrove forest sustainability. We found that cinderblock ovens have a smoking time of 5 hr. There is an urgent need to address the sustainable management of this vital coastal ecosystem. SAGE Publications Inc, unless otherwise noted. Wood utilization intensity in study site according to respondents. These differences are due to the fact that in Pouokam’s (2011) study site, the mangrove forest stocks are almost exhausted, and this is putting pressure on other species such as forest trees and fruit trees. A project aimed at introducing one type of cinderblock ovens (chokor ovens) in the region failed mainly because of insufficient training and monitoring by project managers. (2015) also found that second wood choice by fish smoker was Azobe (25%), which is also the second choice found in our study (although at just 13%). We found that 98% of respondents have a preference for wood for smoking because it allow them not only to quickly reach and maintain the required temperature for fish smoking, but also to solve issues linked to physicochemical properties such as color because as Knockaert (1999) explains, fish color depends on the type of wood used during smoking. Thus, some fish smokers used alternative energy sources (Figure 5), as well as firewood, in order to improve physical aspects of the fish, most usually the color. In Eyengue, it was sold in lots (see Figure 7), which comprise 120 pieces (see Figure 7) and cost 46€. 1,315 mangrove wood products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba.com, of which charcoal accounts for 29%, decorations & ornaments accounts for 1%. Mangrove Wooden Charcoal is Thailand hardwood charcoal produced from high quality mangrove branches and trunk wood. In Cameroon, mangrove forests cover approximately 250,000 hectares and are among the most extensive stands in Africa (Angoni et al., 2015). The surveys comprised semistructured interviews based on a questionnaire which were designed with help of the IRAD team. Several wood species are cut for activities such as cooking food, baking bread, house construction, or building canoes, but fish smoking remains the main drive behind tree felling. For the same amount (160 kg) and species of fish, a cinderblock oven consumes 122 kg of wood at a cost of 4€, with a smoking time of 5 and a traditional oven consumes 365 kg of wood costing 9€ with a smoking time of around 21 hr. The indigenous people at the study sites belong to the Kory, Isangele, Oroko, and Balong tributes (Fomete & Tchanou, 1998). The purpose of this study was to address issues around fish smoking in the region through answering the following questions: Who are the fish smokers? Mango was the most used third choice species (used by 15% of all respondents), and fruit trees were occasionally used. The Pearson r linear correlation test was performed to determine the degree of correlation between the amount of wood used and the quantity of fish smoked. Reasons for firewood preference according to respondents. Alternative Energy Sources Used by Fish Smokers. View or download all the content the society has access to. This has put severe pressure on mangrove forests, leading to steady deforestation. They are Orange trees, Palm trees, Ilomba, Paduk, Taiga wood, Tali, plum trees, apple trees, Kolumba, and Zingana. This discrepancy with our study may be due to the fact that our sample was governed by the relationship between government (IRAD, MINEPIA) and the fish smokers who participated in our study. Per fish smoking session, a traditional oven takes 53 hr to smoke 528 kg of fish and consume 1,205 kg of wood at a cost of 50€. This ratio is more than twice what we found in our study, which is probably due to differences in size and species of the fish (Ngoma, 2005). This large gap could be explained by the fact that there were not many cinderblock ovens in our study site which prevented us being able to make a thorough estimate of cinderblock oven performance. However, fish smokers are not always able to use the oven of their preference. This study took place in nine communities, all located in the Fako department in the south west region of Cameroon. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. The majority of fish smokers (68%) preferred traditional ovens to the new cinderblock oven because they have a large capacity and are known to be durable. While sometimes used as bait, mullet make an excellent choice for smoking or frying. The one-way analysis of variance was performed in order to compare wood consumption between different communities, compare different oven yields, and determine if there was any correlation between the amount of wood used and the experience of fish smokers. This has put severe pressure on mangrove forests, leading to steady deforestation. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Potential Impact of Fish Smoking on Mangrove Resources in Southwest Cameroon, http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage, Ngo-Massou, Essomè-Koum, Kottè-Mapoko, & Din, 2014, http://www.journalducameroun.com/article.php?aid=12990, https://infodoc.agroparistech.fr/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=102671, https://www.pourlascience.fr/sd/environnement/du-carbone-sous-les-mangroves-10929.php. Fishing and fish smoking allows entire families to subsist; nearly 1,018 people were supported by the 243 fish smokers studied. These fish smokers were mainly located in Down Beach, Idenau, Njonji, and Batoke. To introduce regulations, it is first necessary for legislation to be passed to protect mangrove forests. A., Carpenter, K. E., Collins, L., Duke, N. C., Ellison, A. M., Ellison, J. C., Livingstone, S. R. (. We hope that this study will help underscore the alarming rate of mangrove depletion and thus encourage decision makers to implement conservation strategies for the sustainable management of mangrove forests through measures that also take into account the socioeconomic conditions of local populations. H��Wَ��}�W�CH��fI�� �##�$h%~��YZ. Wood from mangrove forests is also used for housing material, scaffolding, fishing stakes and more. Fish and wood species, smoking time, wood purchase, and sales costs were also recorded. T tests were used in order to compare ovens yields and to compare the amount of wood consumed and the quantity of fish smoked. For long cooks, chunks of wood from golf ball to baseball size work best. Despite the better performance of cinderblock ovens, they are not widely used, either because smokers are unwilling to try to the new ovens or because they do not know about them. The strong, red mangrove wood gives fish a golden look and pungent smoky taste. The study found that 60.5% of fish smokers had at least 10 years of experience in smoking. When they were used, it was usually only branches which were harvested. In our sample, all the fish smokers were women. What is the main type of wood used as fuel, what does it cost, and where does it come from? Only one respondent used a modern cinderblock oven (Figure 9(d)). Levels of education of fish smokers according to respondents. Dense, hard buttonwood, a mangrove look-alike, was once popular for smoking wood, but it’s scarce and I discourage using it. (a) Plantain and cassava peel. Our study marks an exception to Le Bigot & Ribier’s (2004) findings that west African tradeswomen do not receive as much schooling as their male counterparts. The study was conducted in Ndian and Fako department, in the south-west region of Cameroon. Fish smokers’ ages ranged from 20 to over 60. Fuel wood for fish smoking is the main driver behind the loss of Cameroon's mangrove, with deforestation rates of 8.28% per year (Feka, 2005, Ajonina et al., 2008, Alongi, 2008, Feka and Manzano, 2008, Feka et al., 2009, Feka and Ajonina, 2011). They sometimes spend up to 400€ per month on wood and are mainly Ghanaian (47%) and Nigerian (30%). Because there is no electricity in some villages in southwest Cameroon, and also because of population growth, there is considerable pressure on forest resources, which results in increasing deforestation. Some could even be classified as industries since they consumed 400€ to 420€ in wood per month (this is during the peak smoking period of 1 or 2 months). This is supported by Ngoma (2005) who found that the smoking time of a cinderblock oven is 5 to 12 hr. Figure 10. Figure 3 shows wood utilization intensity in our study sites. They are formed of river alluvium which is relatively rich in organic matter (Tadjoung & Effala, 2008). Fish smokers have well-defined requirements for their activities. uuid:f2839f3c-b169-4c67-9999-8eb88f192f10 The main activity for men was fishing. A modern cinderblock oven, on the other hand, requires only 5 hr to smoke 160 kg of fish and consumes 122 kg of wood at a cost of 10€. Other accelerating factors in mangrove destruction have been the modernization of wood cutting equipment, particularly the introduction of chainsaws, and the greater availability of large pirogues, powered by outboard engines, which enable easier access to the mangroves stands (Din & Blasco, 2003). Ekomy, Bruneau, Mbega, and Aregba (2013), in their study of new concepts in the artisanal drying and smoking of food in Gabon, found that traditional longitudinal ovens have a ratio of 4.17 with a smoking time of 72 hr. <>stream (b) Suspended wooden banda. Questions were designed to elicit gender, marital status, age, study level, number of family members, nationality, and main professional activity (fishing, fish smoker, or fish seller). In addition to the sale of smoked fish, 8.6% of fish smokers also sell fresh fish. In the Wouri estuary, for example, 80% of Nigerian fishermen abuse the mangrove woods to smoke their fish. Thus, smoking is highly dependent on mangrove forests (Ajonina, 2008; Ajonina, 2001). Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? A large percentage (76%) of wood used by fish smokers is red mangrove wood. A balance needs to be found between consumption and preservation: This is the challenge for all parties involved in the fight for sustainable mangrove management in Cameroon. On average, each supports a family of 3 to 6 people. The restocking frequency varied from one fish smoker to another and was also affected by the season and the availability of fish. Figure 7. A., Nguekam, E. (, Chabi, N. W., Konfo, C. T., Emonde, P. D., Chichi, M. T. C., Sika, K. J. C., Alamou, Y., Baba-Moussa, L. S. (, Degnon, R. G., Agossou, V. E., Adjou, E. S., Dahouenon-Ahoussi, E., Soumanou, M. M., Sohounhloue, D. C. (, Din, N., Ngo-Massou, V. M., Essomè-Koum, G. L., Ndema-Nsombo, E., Kottè-Mapoko, E., Nyamsi-Moussian, L. (, Ekomy, A. S., Bruneau, D., Mbega, D. J., Aregba, W. (, Fall, N. G., Tounkara, L. T., Diop, M. B., Thiaw, O. T., Thonart, P. (, Feka, N. Z., Chuyong, G. B., Ajonina, G. N. (, Ngo-Massou, V. M., Essomè-Koum, G. L., Kottè-Mapoko, E., Din, N. (, Oulaï, S. F., Koffl, R. A., Koussemon, M., Dje, M., Kakou, C., Kamenan, A. It was usually cut by chainsaws (99.17%) and then transported mainly by canoes (97%). Alternative fuels that could reduce wood consumption are rarely used as fuel; they are used to improve the physicochemical properties of fish for better sales. Toshiba Thus, smoking is highly dependent on mangrove forests (Ajonina, 2008; Ajonina, 2001). Quality Charcoal & Smoking Supplies For Sale We stock quality charcoal ranging from Australian Made Mallee Root and Redgum to Imported Mangrove. This site uses cookies. Custom hand-crafted dog kennel crate furniture for you and a forever home for your best friend. Nevertheless, the study shows that cinderblock ovens are categorically more economical than traditional ovens. (2014) the sector is characterized by high levels of illiteracy 85%, 89%, and 95%, respectively. The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This study received funding from Dr. Mireille Sylviane DONGMO NGUEPI, lecturer from the University of Buea Cameroon, to whom the author is very grateful. Mangrove wood is harvested by local communities for many purposes, but most notably as fuel for fish smoking. Cassava peelings (Figure 5(b)) were the second most used. The different uses of mangrove wood were similar in all sites, but the quantities of wood extracted from different sites varied, with sites of high fish landings registering the highest fuel-wood turnover. However, the cost of buying a cinderblock oven is almost double that of a traditional oven (165€ compared to 89€—see Ndiaye & Diei-Ouadi, 2009). This is not the case in all countries. Maps were made using ArcView 3.2 software. (, Polidoro, B. Research Article Indeed, there was no significant difference (F = 1.761, df = 242, p = .138) between wood quantities used and respondents’ age groups. The Pearson Correlation Test (r = .952) showed a strong correlation between the amount of wood consumed and the number of fish smoked. application/pdf A large percentage (76%) of wood used by fish smokers is red mangrove wood. A wide variety of mangrove wood options are available to you, such as hard wood, soft wood, and coconut shell. For this reason, it … Some only purchased it, and others, in addition to purchasing it, also collected their own wood. Mangrove Woods, Port Charlotte, Florida. Image Credit: DarylGlass/iStock/Getty Images The oily texture and strong flavor of mullet make it a good choice for smoking. Wood from a mangrove tree. Qualitative data from the interviewers and questionnaires, and quantitative data from respondents’ consumption monitoring sheets, were analyzed for each site with Excel 2010 software. It is impossible to determine what kind of wood it is, where it was stored, or what it was used for; this makes it unsafe to use for cooking. Wood purchases occurred weekly, monthly, and sometimes even annually, as sometimes the peak smoking period is only 1 or 2 months. Figure 10 shows oven preferences. In the south-west region of the country, pressure on woody resources such as mangrove is particularly extreme. The least used alternative energy source were coconut shells (Figure 5(c)) and palm kernel waste (Figure 5(d)). Despite their evident ecological value, and the fact that they constitute an important source of income for surrounding coastal communities, there is a lack of mangrove protection measures in many tropical regions (Spaninks & Beukering, 1997). 4 0 obj This dependence on red mangrove wood is due to its capacity to produce a great amount of heat energy (Ajonina & Usongo, 2001). All statistical tests were performed at the significance level of α = 5%. Read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate Sharing... Mangrove ecosystems is thus becoming an increasingly urgent topic ( Tiéga & Ouédraogo, 2012 ) are! Stock quality charcoal & smoking Supplies for Sale we stock quality charcoal & smoking for... Textures, sandy, or in smoking by all respondents ), found that cinderblock ovens wood... By local communities for many purposes, but most notably as fuel for fish smokers avoid when choosing wood smoke! 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