Is biogeography is branches of biological science? However, biogeography is a broad discipline but has two main branches 1. BERTRANG G., « L’archéologie du paysage dans la perspective de l’écologie historique » dans Archéologie du paysage, Actes du colloque, Tours, Caesarodunum 13, 1978. Biology - Branches of Biology. En effet, les êtres vivants s'organisent pour donner des paysages différents que l'on appelle « formations » (dénommées le plus souvent selon leurs profils ou les formations végétales les composant). In recent years, scientists and nature enthusiasts alike have further expanded the field of biogeography to include conservation biogeography—the protection or restoration of nature and its flora and fauna, whose devastation is often caused by human interference in the natural cycle. Amanda Briney is a professional geographer. ), Berlin-Stuttgart, J. Cramer, 1993, J. CRAMER, 1993, pp 1-6, SIMON L., Les Paysages végétaux, Paris, Armand Colin, 1998, 95 p. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 19 septembre 2020 à 19:18. Biogeography is a broad discipline but has two main “branches”: Ecological Biogeography: present distributions and geographic variation in diversity, how biotic and abiotic interactions influence species distributions. Dès la fin du XVIIIe siècle, l'un des premiers essais sur la géographie du vivant fut proposé par Buffon, mais c'est au XIXe siècle que naquit vraiment la biogéographie comme discipline scientifique. (coord. ), Les milieux forestiers, aspects géographiques, Paris, SEDES, 1999, 336 p. GALOCHET M., HOTYAT M., « L’Homme, facteur de diversité en milieu forestier », Bulletin de l’Association des Géographes Français, 2001-2, pp 151-163. Geomorphology is a branch of Geography dealing with the study of landforms, the formation of landforms, and associated courses. Phytogeography is the branch of biogeography that studies the distribution of plants. Geography is divided into two main branches: Physical Geography and Human or Cultural Geography. Historical Biogeography:reconstructing the origin, dispersal and extinction of species or taxonomic groups. MacArthur and Wilson changed this perception, and showed how useful data and information can better help explain why certain species … Animals and plants on Earth are usually distributed in specific patterns and biogeographyis the discipline that is involved in this study. Geography examines the nature and relative organization of physical places, locations and human societies throughout the globe. Paris, Masson, 1995, XVI-297 p. DELESIS-DUSSOLIER A., « Histoire du paysage par l’analyse de la végétation : l’exemple des haies », Revue Hommes et terres du Nord n°2-3, Lille, Institut de géographie, Faculté des lettres de Lille, 1986, pp 110-115. Those closer to Asia were said to be more related to Asian animals while those close to Australia were more related to the Australian animals. Ces approches de phylogénétique couplées avec des approches de paléontologie (fossiles, données palynologiques et anthracologiques) sont d'une puissance inégalée jusqu'à présent. It looks at their evolutionary history and things like past climate change to determine why a certain species may have developed in a particular area. During the dry season, fires often sweep through these areas. branches of geography concentrating this dimension of study is Biogeography. On the Cover Skip slideshow. Physical Geography focuses on the study of the activities that take place on the lithospere, hidrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere of the Earth. ALEXANDRE F., GENIN A., « Temporalités dans la biosphère, les trois temps de la végétation. PDF | Geography is a basic subject for all human beings to learn. A through C • Aerobiology is the study of airborne organic particles. ), Berlin-Stuttgart, J. Cramer, 1993, J. CRAMER, 1993, pp 7-13, DUBOIS J.-J., « La place de l’histoire dans l’interprétation des paysages végétaux », Mélanges de la Casa de Velázquez XXX-1, Madrid, Casa de Velázquez, 1994, pp 231-251. The January 2020 issue of the Journal of Biogeography features 15 papers arising from a recent meeting on "Macroecology in the age of big data." 3 4 5. Modern applications of human geograph… Where evapotranspiration is high and so is plant growth. et Géhu J.-M. Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species and ecosystems in geographic space and through geological time. In addition to this, the discipline also studies the way in which the groups of people that inhabit the Earth organize themselves in the particular regions that they inhabit. Their book changed the way biogeographers looked at species and made the study of the environmental features of that time important to understanding their spatial patterns. As such, biogeography also includes the study of the world's biomes and taxonomy—the naming of species—and has strong ties to biology, ecology, evolution studies, climatology, and soil science as they relate to animal populations and the factors that allow them to flourish in particular regions of the globe. This means plants do not need to spend their energy on being dormant and then regenerating their leaves or flowers, they don’t need a flowering season, and they do not need to adapt to extreme hot or cold conditions. Each field, however, looks at phytogeography (the past and present distribution of plants) and zoogeography (the past and present distribution of animals). (dir. Asked by Wiki User. BRANCHES OF GEOGRAPHY PPT - View presentation slides online. Wiki User Answered . Primary productivity looks at the evapotranspiration rates of plants. GALOCHET M., « Histoire de la biogéographie française des origines à nos jours », site Internet de la Commission de Biogéographie du CNFG, 2003, http://www.ipt.univ-paris8.fr/biogeo/, 'HOUZARD G., « Evolution de la biogéographie », Travaux de l’Institut de Géographie de Reims, n° 79-80, UFR Lettres et Sciences Humaines, 1990, pp 67-73, HOUZARD G., « L’approche du biogéographe » dans Colloques phytosociologiques XX, Bailleul 1991, DUBOIS J.-J. L'étude de l'influence anthropique sur la répartition des espèces a été renforcé avec ce changement de paradigmes, notamment grâce aux études de biogéographie historique : impossible de comprendre la biogéographie de la France sans son histoire rurale, par exemple, étant donné que l'espace primaire le plus proche de la France est la forêt de Bialovèse en Pologne et en Biélorussie ! BARRUE-PASTOR M, MUXART T., « Le géosystème : nature "naturelle" ou nature "anthropisée" ? For example, the historical approach would say there are more species in the tropics than at high latitudes because the tropics experienced less severe climate change during glacial periods which led to fewer extinctions and more stable populations over time. Esquisse méthodologique », Revue de géographie des Pyrénées et du Sud-Ouest, 3, Toulouse, PU du Mirail, 1968. In 1967 though, Robert MacArthur and E.O. Physical Geography; Human Geography; Biogeography Physical Geography. Therefore, areas like the tropics that are warm and moist foster plant transpiration allowing more plants to grow there. Wilson published "The Theory of Island Biogeography." Organisms and biological communities often vary in a regular fashion along geographic gradients of latitude, elevation, isolation and habitat area. Étant donné le caractère interdisciplinaire de cette science, il existe de multiples classifications selon le cursus, l'époque et la nationalité de l'auteur : Le développement d'une discipline scientifique passe généralement par trois ou quatre phases, que l'on retrouve dans la biogéographie. Biogeographic studies divide Earth’s surface into regions exhibiting differences in the average composition of flora and fauna. Biologists study structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, identification and taxonomy. During his time in the Malay Archipelago, Wallace examined the flora and fauna and came up with the Wallace Line—a line that divides the distribution of animals in Indonesia into different regions according to the climates and conditions of those regions and their inhabitants' proximity to Asian and Australian wildlife. Maybe the reason is that, in comparison with forests and other terrestrial ecosystems, the ocean is a physically simpler medium. Each addresses the distribution of species from a different perspective. It is divided into two main branches: human … BERTRAND G. et C., Une géographie traversière, l’environnement à travers territoires et temporalités, Paris, Editions Arguments, 2002, IX-311 p. BIROT Pierre, Les formations végétales du globe, Paris, SEDES, 1965. DUBOIS J.-J. Climatic equability looks at the variation between daily and annual temperatures as it is harder to survive in areas with high variation between day and night and seasonal temperatures. Following Wallace were a number of other biogeographers who also studied the distribution of species, and most of those researchers looked at history for explanations, thus making it a descriptive field. Les progrès sont constants dans la description des trajets des espèces, le rôle des événements historiques ont un poids que l'on ne cesse de revoir à la hausse pour expliquer la physionomie des paysages actuels. Hydrology deals with the study of water present … Zoogeography is the branch that studies distribution of animals. It also studies the subject of borders, relations between states and morphological units, fluvial and marine. 'BERTRAND G., La nature en géographie, un paradigme d’interface, Toulouse, Université Le Mirail, 1991, 16 p. BERTRAND G., « Pour une histoire écologique de la France rurale » dans DUBY G., WALLON A. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Water Resources Geographers working in the water resources branch of geography look at the distribution and use of water across the planet within the hydrologic cycle and of human-developed systems for water storage, distribution, and use. L'étape suivante à laquelle sont associés les noms de George Evelyn Hutchinson (1903-1991), Robert MacArthur (1930-1972) et Edward Osborne Wilson (1929-) est l'approche hypothético-déductive prévoyant les distributions des organismes et les processus impliqués à partir d'hypothèses, puis à vérifier sur le terrain les prédictions de ces hypothèses. Le concept de climax est contestable du point de vue naturaliste, et les forêts actuelles ne sont pas compréhensibles sans tenir compte des héritages de la reconquête glaciaire : certains sites des Alpes auraient potentiellement une hêtraie mais n'en présentent pas car le hêtre ne s'y est pas implanté depuis ses refuges glaciaires. Before The Theory of Island Biogeography , by E.O Wilson and Robert MacArthur in 1967, it was seen as a historical one. It considers habitation patterns and factors responsible for variations in distribution. Biogeography focuses on distribution patterns of plant and animal species and the forces that cause those patterns. Biogeography is important as a branch of geography that sheds light on the natural habitats around the world. Studies of historical biogeography involve the investigation of phylogenic distributions over time. La première phase est descriptive. et Géhu J.-M. Biogeography is the study of how species are distributed. What Are the Two Main Branches of Geography? Vous pouvez aider à l'améliorer ou bien discuter des problèmes sur sa page de discussion. Geography is the study of the Earth that focuses on its land, physical features, and atmosphere, as well as human activities and how they are influenced by the Earth. Dans les océans, la biogéographie porte sur tous les êtres vivants. This normally involves their backgrounds, how they interact and the perceptions that they have for various ideologies affecting them. Historical biogeography is called paleobiogeography and studies the past distributions of species. Historical Biogeography Once distributions of organisms are known (floristics), attempts to reconstruct the origin and subsequent history of taxa and areas are possible (historical biogeography)" . 2010-06-23 12:29:02. The study of habitat fragmentation in biogeography then led to the development of conservation biology and landscape ecology. Essentially, Geography has been divided into two broad branches, which are Physical Geography and Human Geography. Biogeography emerged as a field of study as a result of the work of Alfred Russel Wallace, although the field prior to the late twentieth century had largely been viewed as historic in its outlook and descriptive in its approach. The Main Branches of Biology. The Seterra Blog . Biogeography is closely related to ecology which is the study of the inter-relationships between organisms and their habitat. This field can be further broken down into biogeography related to islands, paleobiogeography, phylogeography, zoogeography, and phytogeography. Biogeography is about the geographical distribution, both past and present, of plants, animals and other organisms. . Abiotic factors known to define organismic regions in the ocean are temperature, substrate, currents, light and nutrients, among others. In other words, it is a study of how landforms and geographical processes determine the … La biogéographie est une branche à la croisée des sciences dites naturelles, de la géographie physique, pédologie, l'écologie, de la bioclimatologie et de la biologie de l'évolution qui étudie la vie à la surface du globe par des analyses descriptives et explicatives de la répartition des êtres vivants, et plus particulièrement des communautés d'êtres vivants. Biogeography is the discipline of biology that studies the present and past distribution patterns of biological diversity and their underlying environmental and historical causes. Ces pères de la biogéographie sont les explorateurs des XVIIIe et XIXe siècles, parmi lesquels Augustin Pyrame de Candolle (1778-1841), Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), Aimé Bonpland (1773-1858), Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913), Charles Darwin (1809-1882), Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895), Philip Lutley Sclater (1829-1913), Adolf Engler (1844-1930). It is an essential academic field for all walks of life. ‘Historical biogeography deals with phylogenetic patterns among species and higher lineages attributable to relatively ancient events in earth history.’ ‘So long as its shortcomings are recognized, this book has a wealth of information on the distribution and ecological biogeography of birds.’ Grasses and other herbaceous plants, whose reproductive buds are produced on underground shoots, and, therefore, protected from fires survive and thrive. 11 ZOOGEOGRAPHY “Zoogeography is the branch of the science of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of animal species and their attributes”. DUBOIS J.-J., Espaces et milieux forestiers dans le Nord de la France – Etude de biogéographie historique, Thèse d’Etat, Paris, Université de Paris I, 1989, 2 volumes, 1024 p. DUBOIS J.-J., « L’approche de la biogéographie historique : concepts, méthodes, limites à l’interface de la phytodynamique et de l’histoire forestière » dans Colloques phytosociologiques XX, Bailleul 1991, DUBOIS J.-J. A video on the branches of geography, by Youtuber Darron Gedge. The difference is that the latter, besides being a science that belongs to Political Science, studies the birth o… Savannas, steppes, and prairies occur where rainfall patterns result in long, dry periods at certain times of the year. the branch of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution of plant species, or more generally, plants”. This type of research uses fossils to show the movement of species across space via moving continental plates. 66 n°4, pp 341-350, 2002. It studies the nature, the physical features of the planet, the environment and the natural hazards. Because of this, there are fewer species at high latitudes because more adaptations are needed to be able to survive there. The field attempts to study why certain species can only dwell on certain kinds of landforms. The study of biogeography gained popularity with the work of Alfred Russel Wallace in the mid-to-late 19th Century. It is considered as a discipline that studies the reciprocal influence of political organizations and space. Political geography is often confused with geopolitics. Rainfall has a significant impact on the distribution of plant types. Often times this includes reintegration of species into areas zoned for commercial and residential use by establishing public parks and nature preserves at the edges of cities. How the Sixth Mass Extinction Affects the U.S. Economy, A Geography and Overview of Earth's Arctic Region, A Geographic Overview of the Bering Strait, Habitat Loss, Fragmentation, and Destruction, M.A., Geography, California State University - East Bay, B.A., English and Geography, California State University - Sacramento. The field of biogeography can further be broken down into specific studies related to animal populations include historical, ecological, and conservation biogeography and include both phytogeography (the past and present distribution of plants) and zoogeography (the past and present distribution of animal species). It is a broad field including many branches and subdisciplines. In contrast, the tropics have a steadier climate with fewer variations in temperature. Today, biogeography is broken into three main fields of study: historical biogeography, ecological biogeography, and conservation biogeography. Mycogeography is the branch that studies distribution of fungi, such as mushrooms. Branches of Geography. The organism home or habitat could vary from a small micro habitat such as under a stone or a leaf to Biomes which could be a tropical rainforest or desert. Biogeography is the science that figures out how species are distributed from a local to global scale. Sur les continents, la biogéographie actuelle a tendance à ne s'occuper que des végétaux, les animaux étant considérés comme trop influencés par l'homme. Cette recherche a été amorcée de manière essentiellement narrative cependant par Darwin, Wallace et Huxley, mais c'est Ernst Mayr qui ajoute réellement cette dimension temporelle en 1965 : son objectif étant d'analyser l'origine, la différenciation, le développement et la mise en place des faunes, en relation avec l'histoire spatio-temporelle des milieux. La phase suivante cherche à comprendre l'histoire des faunes (celle des flores demeurant alors en suspens), donc leur évolution. As a result, island biogeography and the fragmentation of habitats caused by islands became popular fields of study as it was easier to explain plant and animal patterns on the microcosms developed on isolated islands. ), Berlin-Stuttgart, J. Cramer, 1993, J. CRAMER, 1993, pp 101-116. All articles in the special section are free to download from the journal website until the end of 2021. BLONDEL J., Biogéographie. AMAT J.-P., « Guerres et milieux naturels, les forêts meurtries dans l’Est de la France », L’espace géographique n°3, Paris, Belin, 1987, pp 218-233. Your institution may cover your Open Access fee! Le travail de cartographie des régions biogéographiques n'est pas achevé et continue à évoluer[2], notamment concernant les aspects sous-marins et parce que les modifications climatiques peuvent modifier certains facteurs écologiques. Scientists in the field of conservation biogeography study ways in which humans can help restore the natural order of plant and animal life in a region. 2. AMAT J.-P., La forêt entre guerre et paix, étude de biogéographie historique sur l’axe meusien, de l’Argonne et de la Woëvre, thèse d’Etat de Géographique, Lille, Université de Lille 1, 1999, 1116 p. , 3 volumes + 1 volume d’annexes de 171 p. ARNOULD P., « Climax, un concept à tout faire ? Historical biogeography is called paleobiogeography and studies the past distributions of species. Biogeography is a branch of geography that studies the past and present distribution of the world's many animal and plant species and is usually considered to be a part of physical geography as it often relates to the examination of the physical environment and how it affected species and shaped their distribution across the world. Historical biogeography primarily involves animal distributions from an evolutionary perspective. The Biogeographical Regions Map of Europe. She holds an M.A. Next Page . BERTRAND G., « Le paysage entre nature et société », Revue de géographie des Pyrénées et du Sud-Ouest, 3, Toulouse, PU du Mirail, 1968. ARNOULD P., « Le recherche française en biogéographie », Bulletin de l’Association des Géographes français n°4, 1994, pp 404-413. Basic principles of its creation and overview of its development, Notices dans des dictionnaires ou encyclopédies généralistes, « Histoire de la cartographie en France », Géographie de l’environnement, écologie politique et cosmopolitiques, CRDAP - Centre Régional de Documentation sur l'Archéologie du Paysage, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Biogéographie&oldid=174850276, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, Page pointant vers des dictionnaires ou encyclopédies généralistes, Page pointant vers des bases relatives à la recherche, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. » dans Colloques phytosociologiques XX, Bailleul 1991, DUBOIS J.-J. Advertisements. Where annual r… Cette biogéographie prédictive s'efforce d'expliquer des mécanismes fondamentaux tels que l'immigration, la colonisation, l'extinction, la structuration et le renouvellement des peuplements. Wallace, originally from England, was a naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist, and biologist who first extensively studied the Amazon River and then the Malay Archipelago (the islands located between the mainland of Southeast Asia and Australia). (dir. As a matter of fact, many other branches of geography normally fall under human geography. » dans Marcel JOLLIVET, Sciences de la nature, sciences de la société, les passeurs de frontière, Paris, Edition du CNRS, 1992, 589 p, pp 259-266. It aims to show where organisms live, and why they are (or are not) found in a certain geographical area. (Sous la direction de), Histoire de la France rurale (en 4 tomes), Paris, Seuil, 1994. Paleobiogeography also takes varying climate as a result of the physical land being in different places into account for the presence of different plants and animals. Longtemps, la tendance des biogéographes a été de vouloir décrire la répartition spatiale des êtres vivants dans une Terre vierge de toute influence anthropique. Mais cette approche est aujourd'hui remise en cause. in geography and a Certificate of Advanced Study in Geographic information Systems (GIS). Biogeography Biographers study the geographic distribution of plants and animals on the earth in the subject known as biogeography. DUBOIS J.-J., « L’évolution des paysages forestiers de la région du Nord : l’intérêt de l’analyse régressive des paysages », Hommes et Terres du Nord 1980-3 pp 27-63, Lille, Institut de géographie, Faculté des lettres de Lille, 1980. Un exemple de cette démarche est la théorie de l'équilibre dynamique des peuplements insulaires de McArthur et Wilson (1963 et 1967). Ecological biogeography looks at the current factors responsible for the distribution of plants and animals, and the most common fields of research within ecological biogeography are climatic equability, primary productivity, and habitat heterogeneity. Cette branche de la géographie étudie la répartition naturelle des êtres vivants (homme excepté). La quatrième phase est la biogéographie expérimentale qui consiste à tester des hypothèses sur certains des mécanismes étudiés par la biogéographie prédictive : créer artificiellement des milieux nouveaux, fragmenter des espaces, ériger ou supprimer expérimentalement des barrières à la colonisation, manipuler des nombres d'espèces sur des espaces restreints, faire des substitutions d'espèces, etc. In high latitudes, it is simply too cold for the atmosphere to hold enough water vapor to produce high rates of evapotranspiration and there are fewer plants present. Biogeography studies the distribution of biological species and the geographic patterns that are a result. » L’Information Géographique, volume 69. Ce sont les formations végétales qui marquent le plus un paysage, le vivant végétal (appartenant à la biosphère), et qui a des interactions avec l'atmosphère, l'hydrosphère et la lithosphère (le substrat), le tout évoluant dans le temps. Cramer, 1993, J. Cramer, 1993, pp 101-116 A., « le géosystème nature. Patterns that are a result to an old subject, writing in a lively and provocative! Geographic distribution of animal species how species are distributed from a different perspective to., REGNAULD H., Echelles et Temporalités en géographie, Paris, Seuil, 1994 1967. Of Advanced study in geographic information Systems ( GIS ) focuses on distribution patterns of plant types free to from... Des îlots boisés », L ’ information Géographique, vol where annual r… biogeography focuses distribution... 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Zoogeography, the branch that studies the subject of borders, relations between states and morphological units fluvial... Geography, by E.O Wilson and Robert MacArthur in 1967, it was seen as a historical.... Flores demeurant alors en suspens ), Berlin-Stuttgart, J. Cramer, 1993, pp.! Is a branch of Geography concentrating this dimension of study: historical biogeography is the branch of historical biogeography the... A result today, biogeography is called paleobiogeography and studies the past of... Des flores demeurant alors en suspens ), Berlin-Stuttgart, J. Cramer, 1993, Cramer. More generally, plants ” Echelles et Temporalités en géographie, Paris,,. Other terrestrial ecosystems, the physical features of the year geographic distribution of animal and... Biogeography related to islands, paleobiogeography, phylogeography, zoogeography, the branch of biogeography: 1 ),! `` Father of biogeography that studies distribution of plant and animal species, dry periods at times! Temporalités en géographie, Paris, Seuil, 1994, substrate, currents, and! Other organisms to show the movement of species phytogeography is the science that figures out how species are from! The reason is that, in comparison with forests and other forms of life light and,. • Aerobiology is the study of the planet, the tropics have a steadier with... Temperature, substrate, currents, light and nutrients, among others normally their! Trois temps de la végétation leur évolution the work of Alfred Russel in! That figures out how species are in their present locations and in developing the... Main stimulus for the field attempts to study why certain species can only dwell on certain kinds of landforms and... Plate tectonics and the geographic distribution of species or taxonomic groups the activities that place... Work of Alfred Russel Wallace in the mid-to-late 19th Century atmosphere and biosphere the. Biogeography then led to the development of conservation biology and landscape ecology du Sud-Ouest, 3, Toulouse, du. Covers studies of historical biogeography involve the investigation of phylogenic distributions over time the,... On distribution patterns of plant types and the Theory of Island biogeography, ecological biogeography, and they. The perceptions that they have for various ideologies affecting them barrue-pastor M MUXART! Vous pouvez aider à l'améliorer ou bien discuter des problèmes sur sa page de discussion world 's natural habitats through. Distribution, both past and present, of plants, animals and other organisms figures out how are...
2020 branches of biogeography