Leaders are electrically conductive channels of ionized gas that propagate through, or are otherwise attracted to, regions with a charge opposite of that of the leader tip. During a storm, colliding particles of rain, ice, or snow inside storm clouds increase the imbalance between storm clouds and the ground, and often negatively charge the lower reaches of storm clouds. Black GOP star faces fury over Breonna Taylor case. Objects struck by lightning experience heat and magnetic forces of great magnitude. Although in the minority on Earth, superbolts appear to be common on Jupiter. The expression "Lightning never strikes twice (in the same place)" is similar to "Opportunity never knocks twice" in the vein of a "once in a lifetime" opportunity, i.e., something that is generally considered improbable. The electric field is strongest on grounded objects whose tops are closest to the base of the thundercloud, such as trees and tall buildings. Eff., Cambridge University Press, 2003: pp. Bevan B. Called step potentials,[citation needed] they are responsible for more injuries and deaths in groups of people or of other animals than the strike itself. These strikes reverse the charge flow of typical lightning bolts and are far stronger and more destructive. This discharge occurs between electrically charged regions of a cloud (called intra-cloud lightning or IC), between two clouds (CC lightning), or between a cloud and the ground (CG lightning). As these relativistic electrons collide and ionize neutral air molecules, they initiate leader formation. [45], Contrary to popular belief, positive lightning flashes do not necessarily originate from the anvil or the upper positive charge region and strike a rain-free area outside of the thunderstorm. The rate at which the return stroke current travels has been found to be around 100,000 km/s (one-third of the speed of light).[37]. The actual discharge is the final stage of a very complex process. The electric field strength within the thundercloud is not typically large enough to initiate this process by itself. [126], Lightning-induced magnetic anomalies can be mapped in the ground,[127][128] and analysis of magnetized materials can confirm lightning was the source of the magnetization[129] and provide an estimate of the peak current of the lightning discharge. Lightning has been observed within the atmospheres of other planets, such as Jupiter and Saturn. at about 7.5 Hz, are used to determine the global thunderstorm activity. By safely conducting a lightning strike to ground, a lightning protection system, usually incorporating at least one lightning rod, can greatly reduce the probability of severe property damage. Cooler air is drawn in by this turbulent, rising air, helping to cool the plume. Pistorius: New film recounts triumph and tragedy. [107], In addition to ground-based lightning detection, several instruments aboard satellites have been constructed to observe lightning distribution. A typical cloud-to-ground lightning bolt begins when a step-like series of negative charges, called a stepped leader, races downward from the bottom of a storm cloud toward the Earth along a channel at about 200,000 mph (300,000 kph). Homes may also be inadvertently grounded by plumbing, gutters, or other materials. The loss of lower charge regions in the dissipating stage of a thunderstorm, leaving the primary positive charge region. The air will spread quickly. The German word Blitzkrieg, which means "lightning war", was a major offensive strategy of the German army during World War II. [4], The typical cloud-to-ground lightning flash culminates in the formation of an electrically conducting plasma channel through the air in excess of 5 km (3.1 mi) tall, from within the cloud to the ground's surface. During wind-driven collisions, ice crystals tend to develop a positive charge, while a heavier, slushy mixture of ice and water (called graupel) develops a negative charge.

where does lightning come from

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