What makes them? Is this Higgs Boson the Higgs Boson of the Standard Model? Models of composite standard model fermions were interesting because they could explain the phenomenon of generations, the repeating standard model families. The idea that everything has to be made of something else is not true. That atoms had internal stuff going on was obvious, because they are electrically neutral, and yet scatter light at definite magic frequencies. Without preons, string theory could be also an answer but not in the line of your question; quarks and leptons would be equivalent to some string states, so not "made of", but "same as". In the light of the Rishon theory, I'm inclined to say no, and that the proof for the Higgs exists only in the minds of those who adhere to the. Similarly, in Kaluza Klein theory: the quarks and leptons are expected to be special states of the compactified theory. Are electrons made of quarks? Should live sessions be recorded for students when teaching a math course online? Quarks bind together through the strong interaction to make, for example, protons and neutrons. According to the Rishon theory, the weak force isn't a fundamental one, just like the "old" strong force that was once thought to be transmitted by the pion (to be compared with the. So one can use the Rishon theory to disproof the existence of the Higgs field. The Standard Model > What is the world made of? Leptons with their weak interactions are the equivalent of the screw driver. What keeps quarks separate (strong force pulls, but what repels to equal out). The most stablished -arguably- preon theory is Harari-Shupe, sometimes referred to as "rishon theory", but there are others. Without preons, string theory could be also an answer but not in the line of your question; quarks and leptons would be equivalent to some string states, so not "made of", but "same as". These theories usually worry a lot about gravity. Quarks bind together through the strong interaction to make, for example, protons and neutrons. Why do physicists think that the electron is an elementary particle? Well, you may imagine that strings are made out of string bits, a construction popular with Charles Thorn who promoted it. As you have read, everything from galaxies to mountains to molecules is made from quarks and leptons. In my eyes, there is indeed no throwback (although I wrote it) because I'm convinced the theory is on the right track. First, let me emphasize that nobody knows what to expect for sure when we probe at smaller and smaller distances (or at higher energies) the until now as elementary considered elementary fields: the electron ($e^-$), the electron neutrino ($\nu_e$), the up-quark ($u^{\frac {+2}{3}},$), and the down-quark($d^{\frac{-1}{3}}$), together with their second and third generation, the massive $W^{+/-}$ and the $Z^0$ (the force carriers of the weak force), the Higgs (explaining mass), and the hypothetical superheavy X- and Y-bosons, which (according to the theory) enable the proton to decay, and have an electric charge of $+\frac{4}{3}$ resp. Quarks behave differently than leptons, and for each kind of matter particle there is a corresponding antimatter particle. Has the Higgs interaction been observed perhaps or the vacuum expectation value directly measured? Like I wrote in the comment below: To me, the Higgs-mechanism is a rather artificial construct and therefore I'm inclined to say that the evidence for the Higgs is contaminated. Light is not made of anything else, neither is gravity. Physics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for active researchers, academics and students of physics. While it is nice to have a name for the hypothetical constituents of quarks, the only useful purpose as yet is in sentence like. If atoms are mostly vacuum, why are things so rigid around us? It is said that because of this all elementary fields will have no mass. Quarks The naming of quarks Hadrons, baryons and mesons Leptons Lepton decays Lepton type conservation Lepton decay quiz Neutrinos Quiz - What particles are made of The theoretical interpretation called the Standard Model, so successful at lower energies presupposes that the quarks are elementary. Can quarks be considered real and elementary? And if we drop this unification, then perhaps it becomes clear that no unification of anything is needed at all. We have deep inelastic scatterings which showed that the atoms have a hard core, so they are not a uniformly distributed matter. I name "elegance" because some physicists regard this as an argument in favor of new ideas (by the way, I don't). “Question closed” notifications experiment results and graduation, MAINTENANCE WARNING: Possible downtime early morning Dec 2/4/9 UTC (8:30PM…. The collision apparently breaks them into pieces and converts some of those pieces into energy, which somehow then immediately condense back into new quark/antiquark pairs. However, one of the main current contenders for explaining quarks is string theory; in fact, string theory first arose as a theory of the strong force as a kind of flux tube that connected quarks; it should be pointed out, as all the major practitioners of the theory caution, that this theory is highly speculative, as one ought to expect when we are so far away from a regime that is directly accessible to experiment. The standard mode considers quarks and leptons as elementary point particles with no constituents. Of course, again, this is the mainstream. What is the Mechanism giving mass to fundamental particles? Confusion regarding fundamental particles. I myself have one of them, the sBootstrap, and no doubt that some other people will intend to answer you by proposing their favourited theory.

## what are quarks and leptons made of

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