Problems and prospects in the study of international norms. Norms not only regulate the behavior of actors in international relations, but also create and define their very identities and interests (Checkel, 1997, 1998; Finnemore, 1996). In V. Kubalkova, N. Onuf, & P. Kowert (Eds. Jørgensen, K. (2001). International Security, 23, 171-200. This goal is accomplished by asking “How” and “What” questions (Wendt, 1998): How is it possible that chemical and nuclear weapons have become regarded as illegitimate instruments of warfare (Price & Tannewald, 1996)? Rather, meanings are formed through interaction with others (Creswell, 2013). New York: Cambridge University Press. The simultaneity of interaction makes it very difficult to capture the self-reinforcing nature of norms, institutions, or cultures and the ways in which states, individuals, and other social agents create and change the social order of things. Constructivism emerged on the wave of the growing dissatisfaction with the neorealist individualistic and systemic orientation. This idea encapsulates two interrelated processes: (1) The social environment makes individuals, states, and other actors of world politics into the kinds of beings and entities they are; and (2) conversely, individuals, states, and other actors of world politics make the world what it is through various forms of interaction with each other (Onuf, 1998). During the early stages of the norm adoption cycle, a government does not acknowledge the existence of the norm and denies violations but may be pressed into tactical concessions by domestic and international social actors demanding compliance with the norm. The e-book also explains all stages of the research process starting from the selection of the research area to writing personal reflection. Researchers contribute to the construction and reconstruction of reality through their scientific exploratory practices (Albert, 2001). Realists do not ascribe an independent causal role to a norm, while liberals treat norms instrumentally as tools for maximizing utility of the gain-seeking actors. In J. Goldstein & R. Keohane (Eds. New York: Columbia University Press. Constructivist scholarship offers an impressive catalogue of what are called the scope conditions under which norms are likely to fail or succeed (Zürn & Checkel, 2005). It begins by explaining what constructivism is and laying out the main constructivist premises that hold this diverse perspective together and set it apart from other approaches within the discipline. As soon as you include human mental activity in the process of knowing reality, you have accepted constructivism” Davis Elkind. The factors in a constitutive relationship are not independent and separated in time: The factors constituting Europe or human rights neither exist apart from Europe or human rights nor precede them in time. To recapitulate, in the constructivist worldview, international relations are inherently social. The norms of sovereignty or the institution of self-help have been perceived as natural and taken for granted. (1994). However, the material aspects of world politics do not come classified. Hopf, T. (2002). Material structures, beyond some biological characteristics, have certain meanings insofar as individuals and their collectivities create shared understandings of what those material structures signify, and individuals and groups attach this collective knowledge to physical reality (Adler, 2002). 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