Good thing you just mastered the Land Empires in the last unit, because the Europeans are about to start knocking on their doors AP World History Study Guide and Graphic Organizers – Unit 4: Early Modern Era, 1450 CE – 1750 CE. Christian boys, taken from the Balkan provinces, converted to Islam, and recruited by force to serve the Ottoman government. NEW! AP World History. Ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic. It was built around a chateau belonging to Louis XIII, which was transformed by additions in the grand French classical style, From their magnificent capital city, Tenochtitlan, this empire emerged as the dominant force in central Mexico, developing an intricate social, political, religious and commercial organization that brought many of the region's city-states under their control by the 15th century. A government with a king or queen whose power is limited by the power of a parliament. the first European to reach India by sea sailing around the tip of Africa. Succeeds Elizabeth I as king of England; tried to bring reforms that would calm religious strife, but to no avail; Puritans left James' England to settle in the New World; son of James; disagreement with Protestants and with Parliament led to a civil war which he lost; tried and executed; Roundheads under Oliver Cromwell took power, Leader of Protestant revolutionaries called Roundheads that deposed King Charles I of England; he took over as head of state and was called the lord protector, Restores the royal Stuart family as monarch of England; secret Catholic; monary no longer absolute but limited with Parliament playing a larger role, Deposed the Catholic James II of England; this occurred because Parliament feared he would take the country back to Roman Catholicism; he was replaced by his son-in-law and daughter, William and Mary, the Protestant rulers of the Netherlands, Only four years old when he inherited the throne; legendary monarch of Europe; absolute ruler; called the Sun King; built palace at Versailles to control powerful nobles, Stopped Louis XIV's expansion plans around the world; Louis's grandson was in line to inherit the throne of Spain; one war later the grandson inherits that throne but can make no alliances to join with France, 1555 CE#; was supposed to bring an end to the constant conflict between Catholics and Protestants; this peace was ended by the Thirty Years War in 1618, 1618 CE; ended a period of peace between Protestant and Catholics; developed into a huge war between major European power; left many parts of Germany depopulated; Holy Roman Empire lost 30%of its people, Romanov czar who ruled from 1682-1725; believed he needed to westernize Russia; built first navy and city of St. Petersburg; women had to dress in western fashions; men had to shave their beards. Explored the Inca Empire in the Andes Mountains of South America; disease, superior weapons, and help from enemies quickly destroyed Inca resistance; Pizzaro and his forces came to rule the area. ... European scholars, writers, and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the fifteenth century and later. global trading system in the Caribbean and the Americans trade networks extended to all corners of Atlantic Ocean. Assisted in the Catholic Reformation by establishing the Society of Jesuits; Jesuits practiced self-control and moderation, believed that prayer and good works led to salvation; led to higher expectations for all clergy; because of their oratorical and political skills Jesuits served in high political offices, Founded in 1545 as part of the Catholic Reformation to define Catholic interpretation of Church doctrine; heretics (mostly Jews and Protestants) were once again tried and punished; reestablished Latin as the language of worship for the Roman Catholic Church, 1632 CE; demonstrated the rotation of the earth on its axis around the sun; his mathematical proofs made it difficult for scholars to continue to adhere to Ptolemy's teaching that the heavens orbited earth; Church put Galileo on trial and he was forced to recant; his book was banned; even under house areest he continued to research and document his findings, "The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" in 1697; he invented calculus to help prove the theories of Copernicus, Galileo, Bacon, and others; also developed the law of gravity, 1588-1679 CE; author of "Leviathan" who believed people were by nature greedy and prone to violent warfare; so he believed the role of government in the social contract should be to preserve peace and stability even at the expense of political rights, 1632-1704 CE; wrote "Two Treatises on Government; believed in the essential goodness of man, all men were equal and had unalienable rights to life, liberty, and property; primary responsibility of government to secure and guarantee natural rights, 1712-1778 CE; wrote "The Social Contract;" society should be organized by the majority's will; essence of freedom is to obey the laws that the people make for themselves, Argued for separation of powers among the branches of government, Rounded the Cape of Good Hope at Africa's southernmost end and became the first European to reach India by sea, Convinced Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to finance a voyage to Asia by heading west; he bumped into the Americas instead, continuing to think he had reached Asia, In 1519, Cortes landed on the coast of Mexico with a small force; in Aztec Empire; he worked with opponents of the Aztecs to subjugate them and/or murder them; main objective was gold and wealth for Spain. Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church, begun in response to the Protestant Reformation. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire. Start studying AP World History: Unit 4. a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, principally, the manner of England's government. 17th-18th century CE; focused on the role of humankind in relation to government; philosophers included Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau, Adam Smith, etc. This website works best with modern browsers such … (Examples Cortez, Pizarro, Francisco.). British, French, and Dutch trading companies that obtained government monopolies of trade to India and Asia; acted independently in their regions. He was also father to Alexander the Great. a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire, Spanish conquistador who conquered the Inca's, As a result of Europeans entering and converting thousands to Christianity, the Shogun expelled or eliminated European entrance to the country. a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy. The Catholic Church instituted reforms in order to win back some of the souls it lost to the Protestants; somewhat successful; reforms included banning the sale of indulgences, training priests to follow teachings more strictly; making weekly mass obligatory; re-establishing the power of the Pope. A lot like the divine right of kings; While the emperors were divinely chosen, they could not continue to rule if they failed to please heaven. Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506), Portuguese explorer who sailed around the Southern end of South America and eventually reached the Philippines, but was killed in a local war there. Nov 16 - Intro to Unit 4: What are we expected to know, Unit 4 Changes & Continuities, create outline and thesis thunderdome for Unit 4 CCOT HW: Chap 16 HW due Wed 11/18, Get a Five Intro to Unit 4 Nov 17 - QOTD, Chap 16 Notes, Maritime Empire comparative outlines HW: Chap 16 HW due tomorrow Nov 18 - Bell Ringer: Impact of a caravel & astrolabe, Zheng He mini Q work a Spanish priest who became famous for trying to defend the Native Indians, and improve their treatment; he said Jesus died for them. Europe and the Americas. Could buy, sell, and inherit real estate. 1. AP World History - Unit 4. A German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. Find GCSE resources for every subject.